The 10th Virginia Regiment
TIME LINE OF THE 10TH VIRGINIA REGIMENT
16 September, 1776
Authorized by the Continental Congress as part of Virginia's quota of six new numbered regiments.
12 October 1776
Ordered raised by the Virginia General Assembly as the 14th Virginia Regiment, and is to consist of 10 companies. Colonel Charles Lewis was appointed as commanding officer in November.
November 1776 to March 1777
The other officers are appointed, and assigned to recruit in the following counties in central Virginia; Abemarle, Augusta, Bedford, Charlotte, Dinwiddie, Fincastle, Goochland, Halifax, Hanover, Louisa, Lunenberg, Orange, Pittsylvania, and Prince George.
By placing an advertisement in the Virginia Gazette, Col. Lewis orders all companies to rendezvous at Charlettesville and Fredericksburg. The regiment marches to join the main army via Baltimore and Elizabethtown, NJ. The recruits are vaccinated against smallpox, and are among the first in history to participate in a military vaccination program.
Assigned to Weeden's Brigade, Greene's Division of the Main Army. The brigade consists of the 2nd, 6th, 10th, and 14th Virginia Regiments.
July through November 1777, the Philadelphia Campaign
September 11, Brandywine
Greene's Division begins the battle opposite Knyphausen's Division near Chad's Ford. As the flanking action on the American left by Cornwallis occurs, Greene moves the division to Dilworth, and take up positions along the Forks Road to cover the divisions of Sullivan and Stevens which are in full retreat. South of Dilworth, Greene engages the British 4th Brigade under Agnew, driving back a determined assault with musket fire. During this engagement, the 14th Virginia was most likely fighting the 46th and 64th Regiments of Foot and delivered some particularly devastating flanking fire. The 14th Virginia numbered about 130 rank and file at this battle, the balance being on detached service.
September 16; Whitehorse Tavern
Also called the Battle of the Clouds, a torrential 24 hour rain storm ruined all of the Continental's cartridges, and visibility was near zero. Heavy flooding greatly reduced mobility, and Washington was forced to withdraw to Yellow Springs.
September 26, The British Occupy Philadelphia.
October 4; Germantown
Greene's Division was on the American left during this attack, and drove the British 1st Light Infantry Battalion along Church Lane, stopping in the center of town near Market Square. Weeden engaged Matthew's Brigade with included the 4th, 27, 28th and 49th Foot.
The 14th Virginia could have been engaged with any of these units, and also elements of the Guards Brigade and the 1st Light Infantry.
As the Battle progressed, American Forces were repulsed at Chew House, and the British counter attacked. Greene's Division was forced to retreat, but did so in an orderly, and almost leisurely pace, delivering stinging volleys as they went. Thomas Paine, serving as a volunteer aid to General Greene, was impressed by the coolness of the 14th and the other Virginia Regiments while under fire.
November 15; Capture of Fort Mifflin
A small Continental garrison resisted a continuous bombardment until the Fort was completely destroyed. A small contingent of 56 men from the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th 8th 10th and 14th Virginia Regiments was used to reinforce Fort Mifflin. The 14th's compliment was most likely 1-8 men.
December 19, 1777 to June 19, 1778; Winter at Valley Forge
December 1777: The 13th Pennsylvania Regiment is added to Weeden's
Brigade. The 14th Virginia goes into Valley Forge with 288 men
on the rolls, 118 are available for duty.
Reduced from 10 to 8 companies.
March 1778: The 14th has 294 men on the rolls, but only 49 are fit for duty. Col. Lewis resigns as commander. William Davies is appointed the new Colonel on March 20th. Also arriving at Valley Forge is the new Inspector General, Baron Von Steubon. Davies becomes and early protégé of the Baron and is appointed Sub Inspector General of the Virginia Line. Under Davies's leadership the 14th becomes a model regiment.
June 1778: The 13th Pennsylvania is removed from Weeden's Brigade, and reassigned. The 14th leaves Valley Forge with 408 men on the rolls, with 225 present and fit for duty.
June 28, 1778: Battle of Monmouth Courthouse
Again, as part of Greene's Division, the 14th is on the far right flank of the American lines, near Comb's Hill. Greene provided flanking musket and artillery fire from this position, and was engaged with the Guards Brigade and 37th Foot.
July to August 1778: White Plains, New York
In July the 14th Virginia is transferred to Muhlenberg's Brigade, Weeden's Brigade being disbanded. The other regiments in this brigade include the 1st Virginia (Col. Richard Parker, contains detachments of the 5th and 9th Virginia), and the 1st and 2nd Virginia State Regiments. A general reorganization of the Virginia Line takes place, hereafter referred to as the "White Plains" arrangement.
September 14, 1778: West Point area, New York
The 14th Virginia is officially renumbered as the 10th Virginia Regiment, with William Davies as Colonel.
October to November 1778: Fort Clinton area, NY and Northern New Jersey.
December 1778 to April 1779: Middlebrook, New Jersey
The 10th Virginia spends an uneventful and fairly comfortable winter at Middlebrook,
which did not expose the army to the privations of Valley Forge. By April the 10th has 295 men on the rolls, with 158 fit for duty.
May 1779: Middlebrook, New Jersey
The 10th and 1st Virginia Regiments are formed into one line battalion, each unit being reduced to 4 Companies. The colonel is still William Davies, Burgess Ball of the 1st becomes Lt. Colonel, and Samuel Cabel of the 10th is retained as Major. This battalion still maintains two sets of regimental staff, such as adjutant, paymaster etc.
June-July 1779: Smith's Cove, Highlands of New York
Wayne's Corps of Light Infantry is organized; half of a company is drafted from the 1st/10th Virginia for service in the Corps. The 10th Virginia's compliment is 1 Lt. (Abraham Maurey), 2 Sergeants, 1 Surgeon, and 11 privates. The 1st Virginia sent 1 Captain (Claiborn W. Lawson), 1 ensign, and 10 privates. The 5th and 11th Virginia supplied the other half company to form Lawson's Company, which was assigned to Lt. Col. LeFluery's (or 1st) Bn, Febigger's (or 1st) Regiment of Wayne's Corps of Light Infantry.
On July 15, Wayne's Corps successfully assaulted Stony Point; the 150 man vanguard force lead by Lt. Col. LeFleury, occupied the center of the Fort. LeFleury personally struck the British Colors. The 1st\10th Virginia was present as a reserve for this operation.
August 19, 1779: Paulus Hook
A force lead by Henry Lee successfully assaulted the Fort at Paulus Hook, NY. A 100 man contingent lead by Captain Nathan Reid of the 10th Virginia made up the center division of this force.
September to November 1779: Smith's Cove New York
December 1779 to January 1780: Morristown, New Jersey
A large number of the 10th Virginia return home on furlough. General Scott and Lt. Col. Hopkins return to Virginia to gather up these men. The Virginia Line is reorganized, with the 1st, 10th, 5th, 11th, and 7th, forming one battalion commanded by Col. Russel and assigned to Woodford's Brigade.
Lt. Col. Hopkins is able to gather up 256 men to form the 1st Virginia detachment, which serves in Scott's Brigade. Some of these men, but not all, are from the 10th Virginia. Two other Virginia detachments are formed, 10th Virginians serve in both.
February to March 1780:
The Virginia Line marches to relieve the besieged city of Charleston. Upon arrival, the three battalions and 2 detachments begin to reorganize based on the White Plains arrangement.
April to May 1780: The Siege and Fall of Charleston.
The city of Charleston falls on May 12, 1780 after a 1 and a half month siege. Lt. Col. Samuel Hopkins is in command of the 10th at the surrender; 209 men go into captivity. This is the end of the line for the operational 10th Virginia, although the unit continues to exist on paper. The 10th's old commander, William Davies becomes Governor Thomas Jefferson's military advisor in 1780. A number of other 10th Virginians remain active after the capture of the regiment.
February 1781: Chesterfield Courthouse, Virginia
The 10th Virginia is officially disbanded by a board of field officers. Any remaining personnel are transferred to other units, mainly the 1st Virginia Regiment.